In the daily machining of parts on the parts of a variety of holes, rare are: bolt screw hole, oil hole; Axial holes on sleeves, gears and flanges; Bearing holes on the box body; Deep hole (depth to diameter ratio >5 ~ 10)
The common hole machining is drilling, boring, milling, reaming, Broaching machining, etc. :
Drilling processing: in the drilling machine with a drill in the machine on the way to process the hole called drilling. There are many types of drill bits, the most commonly used being twist drills. Its diameter specification is Φ0.1-80mm. Due to the limitations of the structure, the bending stiffness and torsion stiffness of the bit are low, and the centrality is not good, so the accuracy of drilling is low, which can only reach IT13 ~ IT11. The surface roughness is also large, and the Ra is generally 50~12.5μm. There are some problems in drilling with twist drill, such as easy wear of bit, hard chip removal and poor precision of hole. But low cost, simple and efficient is one of the most common machining methods
Boring processing: Boring is a kind of machining method which enlarges the prefabricated hole with cutting tools. The boring work can be carried out on the boring machine, commonly known as boring and grinding, or on the lathe. Boring machining out of high precision generally use more precise hole, machining accuracy of IT7 ~ IT8, the roughness of the outside Ra value is 0.8 ~ 0.1μm.
Reamer processing: generally divided into two kinds of hand reaming and machine reaming, for smaller holes, relative to drilling and boring, reaming is a more economical and practical processing method. The general coarse hinge allowance is 0.35~0.15mm, and the fine hinge is 01.5~0.05mm. The accuracy is generally IT9 ~ IT7, and the surface roughness Ra is generally 3.2~0.8 μm
Broaching machining: Broaching is in the broaching machine with broach through the process of the workpiece has hole rough finishing and for a work step to achieve the processing method, high productivity; Machine tool management is brief; The broaching precision can reach IT6 ~ IT8, and the roughness Ra value is 0.8 ~ 0.4μm. The broaching precision can reach IT6 ~ IT8.
The above methods are frequently used in actual production at present. Secondly, line cutting is also a more common processing method, which can solve some holes with high hardness and more precise tolerance. The only shortage is that the processing time is slightly longer. For those who do export products, I generally drill first and then milling, and then choose boring or reaming according to the requirements of the drawings
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